Volume 50, Issue 9 p. 799-813
Research Article

Visualizing science by citation mapping

Henry Small

Henry Small

Institute for Scientific Information, 3501 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104

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Science mapping is discussed in the general context of information visualization. Attempts to construct maps of science using citation data are reviewed, focusing on the use of co-citation clusters. New work is reported on a dataset of about 36,000 documents using simplified methods for ordination, and nesting maps hierarchically. An overall map of the dataset shows the multidisciplinary breadth of the document sample, and submaps allow drilling down to the document level. An effort to visualize these data using advanced virtual reality software is described, and the creation of document pathways through the map is seen as a realization of Bush's (1945) associative trails.